Modern Ontological Arguments and the Possibility Premise

Somayyeh faridooni; Hamidreza Ayatollahy

Volume 2, Issue 4 , January 2026, Pages 1-18

  There is an essential premise in most modern modal ontological arguments for God's existence, called possibility premise, which stipulates that ‘it is possible that a perfect being (or God) exists’. In this paper first three famous versions of modern ontological arguments are presented; those ...  Read More

The Existential Problem of Evil and its Responses in Christian Theology

Naeimeh poormohammadi

Volume 2, Issue 4 , January 2026, Pages 19-37

  If we leave rational paradigm of thought and go in to emotional one, the problem of evil is not logical or philosophical anymore, but it is existential. The simple form of this problem is that the relationship with God above all relations needs trust, safe, and satisfaction. But the problem is that the ...  Read More

Mulla Sadra and Ibn Arabi on Sustainability in Retribution

mohammad heidarifard; mohamad kazem forghani

Volume 2, Issue 4 , January 2026, Pages 39-59

  The problem of eternity of the soul in the hell, and sustainability in the divine punishment is among the most important theological and doctrinal issues which has drawn the attention of Muslim thinkers from the beginning. Mulla Sadra indicated the problems concerning the issue, and tried to answer them. ...  Read More

Heidegger’s Critique on the Onto-Theo-Logical Constitution of Metaphysics in Hegel’s Philosophy;Review and valuation


Volume 2, Issue 4 , January 2026, Pages 61-80

  This paper reviews and evaluates the Heidegger's lecture course titled ‘identity and difference’ about Hegel's philosophy. This study has attempted to explain Heidegger's understanding of the basic components of Hegel's thoughts concerning ‘the problem of identity and difference’ ...  Read More

C. S. Lewis's Moral Argument for the Existence of God; Review and Explanation ‘Objectivism and Theistic View to Universe’

kazem raghebi; Amir Abbas Alizamani

Volume 2, Issue 4 , January 2026, Pages 81-105

  In recent years, different versions of the moral argument for existence of God are formed and presented. The argument from moral objectivism of CS Lewis is one of them. Lewis by appealing to the common moral orders and laws in human life and by considering ethical Quarrelling, moral criticism, and human ...  Read More

A Critical Analysis of Neurological Study of Religious Experience: Problems and Limitations

Karim Karami

Volume 2, Issue 4 , January 2026, Pages 107-133

  The nature and possible neural correlations of religious experience is one of the latest fields of study in the neurological studies. Neuroscientists in this field are attempting to achieve exact understanding of the nature of religious experience as a cognitive function through the study of mediating ...  Read More