Document Type : Original Article


1 Phd student of Transcendent Theosophy

2 Associate Professor of Department of Philosophy, Khwarazmi University

3 Professor of Philosophy Department of Allameh Tabatabai University


One of the main topics of the philosophy of religion is the effectiveness of God and the manner of divine action in the world. Self-limiting thinking, which considers traditional philosophy and modern philosophy to be ineffective in responding to issues related to divine agency and God's relationship with the world, tries to present new theologies according to its philosophical foundations so that they can solve philosophical and theological issues in the field of divine agency. to solve and answer the theological problems in this field by providing new definitions of former concepts. The question of this article is whether there is such an internal consistency in the thought system of process theology that can maintain the supremacy of God and the necessity and simplicity while establishing a mutual and two-way relationship between God and the world and solving philosophical and theological problems in the field of divine agency. Don't damage his essence? Since process theologians have spoken the most and most basic words in the field of self-determination thinking, we will first examine the theological perspective of process theologians and believers in God's believers self-limitation in the field of divine agency. In order to answer the philosophical and theological issues in this matter, in the analysis of divine agency in the world system, they consider change better than stability and consider their philosophy to be based on transformation and mutual and organic movement of all beings. Beings having two main and secondary dimensions, while having mutual relations with each other, they maintain their individuality and have creativity. Therefore, God, as one of the beings of this world who is across other beings, is variable in his subordinate nature, and the relationship of influence and influence between God and the beings of the world leads to the dissolution of God in the world. Now, in order to maintain the effectiveness and creativity and self-creation of other beings along with divine agency, previous knowledge and divine absolute power have been negated, and God is not the creator of beings, but only has creativity. By examining and analyzing this thought, we find out that in addition to the existence of internal inconsistency in the view of this school, Mulla Sadra, based on his philosophical principles, considers the theory of process theologians in the field of divine agency to be contrary to the inherent obligation and simplicity of God's essence, and considers the agent to be a manifestation, while preserving the excellence of the divine essence, proves his effectiveness in all dimensions of beings, and provides the field to respond to theological problems in the field of divine effectiveness.
Considering that this article deals with the divine agency from Sadra's point of view with the perspective of dynamic theology, an attempt is made to first describe the perspective of process theology and its intellectual foundations by using the descriptive-analytical method, and then by examining the internal inconsistencies of this thinking, this theory should be explained and criticized in the system of Sadra's philosophy, and finally, Sadra's point of view should be examined in the discussion of divine agency. Based on the investigations, despite the many researches and articles that have been conducted on the subject of divine agency from Mulla Sadra's point of view, an independent work that has reread Sadra's manifest agency with regard to the theory of self-limitation in process theology and the problems raised in it from an internal point of view it was not found. The author's efforts to search for background on the subject of comparing process theology with Mulla Sadra's point of view led to the following findings:
1- The book "Comparative research in the ontology and epistemology of Mulla Sadra and Whitehead" written by Mr. Mahdi Dehbashi in this book, the basics of ontology and epistemology are examined from the point of view of Whitehead as one of the most prominent thinkers of process philosophy and Mulla Sadra, the similarities and differences of this point of view are pointed out, and some of process theological theories are criticized. However, this book is different from the purpose of this research, which is to examine divine agency from the perspective of process theologians and criticize it based on internal consistency and Sadra's principles and the manner of agency in manifestation.
2- Thesis entitled "The Problem of Divine agency in Mulla Sadra, Descartes and David Griffin" written by Mrs. Zainab Akhtari. In this research, Griffin's point of view as one of the leading figures of process theology and Mulla Sadra in the field of divine agency is examined. Although in this research, the discussion of divine agency is discussed from the point of view of these three thinkers and their differences and similarities, but in this research, after examining the foundations of process philosophy thinking and Mulla Sadra in the discussion of divine agency, we try to identify the weaknesses of process theology based on to criticize the basics of Sadra's thinking.
3- Dissertation "Charles Hartshorne's process theological theory with the perspective of transcendental wisdom" written by Mr. Adham Meshmir in this thesis, although the viewpoint of one of the thinkers of process theology is examined, the issue of divine agency is not specifically investigated. In addition, it has not investigated Sadra's point of view in the discussion of divine agency and its confrontation with the problems ahead from his point of view; Rather, most of the views of the thinkers of transcendental wisdom, including Allameh Tabatabai and Shahid Motahari, have been examined.
4- Dissertation "Examining the perspective of process theology according to Hartshorne's account of God's relationship with the world from the perspective of transcendental wisdom" written by Ms. Zainab Akhtari in this research, Hartshorne's view of process theologians and his intellectual foundations on the issue of God's relationship with the world have been examined, and then some of their views have been criticized based on the view of transcendental wisdom. Although in this research, an attempt has been made to criticize the divine intellectual principles of process scholars based on the principles of transcendental wisdom, but in my research, the issue of divine agency and its intellectual foundations has been presented and criticized in a more comprehensive manner from the perspective of process thinkers, and Sadra's answer in the discussion of effectiveness, it is explained in detail based on the effectiveness of manifestation. Finally, according to the searches, no research with the title, method and purpose of this research was found.


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