Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD student of Islamic theology, Tabriz University

2 member of faclety tabriz

3 Assistant Professor of Tabriz University



The problem of evil has caused theologians to have comprehensive and deep discussions about this issue in their works and to defend the belief in God. Saint Irenaeus, who played a significant role in Christian theology, tried to solve the problem of evil by proposing the idea of “cultivation of the soul” in his theodicy. From the point of view of Irenaeus, if evil is realized in the world of creation; it is sin and it is an essential affair in human essence that Adam fell into in the beginning of creation, and he disobeyed God's Command by abusing his will and authority, and this desire to sin is still prevalent among the human race. In this article, with a descriptive-analytical method and with a critical approach, an attempt is made to first investigate and analyze Irenaeus' theodicy and then criticize it according to the perspective of Immāmiyya Theology (Kālam). Despite the efforts that Saint Irenaeus had in solving the problem of evil, his theodicy is faced with challenges and deadlocks such as “relativism”, “pointless evil”, “epistemological distance” etc., which reduce its plausibility.