Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD Holder in Philosophy of Religion, Department of Philosophy, College of Farabi, University of Tehran, Qom, Iran

2 Department of Philosophy, Faculty of Theology, UniversiDepartment of Philosophy, Faculty of Theology, University of Tehran. Tehran, Iranty of Tehran. Tehran, Iran


The problem of evil and the problem of miracles are among the most important issues in the philosophy of religion. J.L Mackey, William L. Rowe and other philosophers raise the problem of the logic of evil and the problem of evidence of evil, while James A.Keller proposes the problem of miracles as the third problem of evil. James Keller divides miracles into epistemological and practical miracles, and believes that the possibility of miracles occurring in both senses actually reinforces the problem of evil and making it a dilemma for attributes such as omnipotence, omniscience, and pure benevolence of God.  James A. Keller citing the paradigm of the experimental sciences and uses the modern understanding of miracles as a temporary suspension of one or more laws of nature performed by divine power, and sees the benefit of only a particular group of miracles as contradicting God's justice. According to Muslim scholars and theologians, first of all, contrary to the view of Western thinkers, the miracle of breaking the habit is contrary only to the laws of the experimental sciences and to the ordinary and everyday experience of man, and not outside the law and rational-philosophical rules.  Secondly, the miracle is the general authority of God, and it is useful not only for the sages, but also for all, and its authority is undeniable.


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