Document Type : Original Article


1 Lecturer at Farhangian University, Imam Khomeini Campus, Gorgan

2 Associate Professor of Philosophy of Religion, University of Tehran


The English biologist and philosopher, Richard Dawkins, claims that the basic rules of physics in beginning of the universe and then evolution of vital complicated creatures and complexities, specifically human being, have been emerged by chance. He suggests two argument for his view; In his ‘simplicity argument’ argues that the basic rules of physics are simple, so it is actually more likely that the relatively simple lows of nature would be come into existence for no reason than that they would be designed by a God whose being would have to be more complex than they are. Thus, there is no God.
In ‘cumulative process argument’, he argues that the emergence of complex form in the universe can be explain by natural selection alone, in a cumulative process of evolution, thus, it is ‘self-explanatory’.
By contrast, Keith Ward as an English theist philosopher, with separating ‘inclusive simplicity’ of God from ‘exclusive simplicity’ that is in physical world, defends from "integrative and inclusive simplicity" of God. The existence of God integrates all elements, products of evolution and natural basic rules in a comprehensive system, thus, it is simplest explanation for the emergence of the universe and complexities on the earth, while Dawkins's materialistic view is not explanatory sufficiency. In fact, here we need ‘plenitude principle’, not ‘Occam's razor’. So ‘simplicity argument’ is in fact, ‘the fallacy of simplicity’. In this research, it is tried to defend from theistic explanation for evolutionary process.