Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD student in Comparative Philosophy, Azad University

2 Associate Professor of Philosophy of Religion, University of Tehran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy and Theology, Faculty of Theology and Islamic Studies, Imam Sadegh (AS) University


There are two theories among dualists who believe that soul is immortal with body: ‘recreation theory’ and ‘new body theory’. According to recreation theory, soul is immortal and the very earthy body will be recreated in the next world. According to the new body theory, humans have a body and a soul. Soul is immaterial, and is our personal identity. Since soul is immortal it is possible that soul continues living with the same earthy body or the other body in the other world. Gazzali and Swinburne both take new body theory but there are some differences. They both believe that soul is immortal, however for Swinburne this immortality isn’t innate and God gives the soul immortality whereas Gazzali asserts that soul is immortal in itself though God can stop its existing.