حل مسئلۀ شر با تکیه بر نظریۀ انگیزش الهی(بررسی راهکار زاگزبسکی در حل مسئلة شر)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشجوی دکترای رشتة فلسفة دین، دانشگاه تهران، پردیس فارابی

چکیده

مسئلة شر یکی از مهم‌ترین انتقاداتی است که امروزه باور عقلانی به وجود یک خدای خیرخواه، عالم مطلق و قادر مطلق را به مخاطره می‌اندازد. لیندا زاگزبسکی از جملة فیلسوفان معاصری است که تلاش دارد با نگاه تازه‌ای، به حل این مسئله بپردازد. او با پیش‌کشیدن «نظریة انگیزش الهی» نشان می‌دهد که خداوند سرچشمة وجودی تمام خوبی‌هاست و انگیزه‌های او به لحاظ وجودی و متافیزیکی پایة تمام اوصاف و ارزش‌های اخلاقی‌اند. زاگزبسکی با تمسک به این نظریه اثبات می‌کند که براهین منطقی و شاهدمحور شر در اثبات نتیجه‌شان ناکارامد هستند. او در ادامه تلاش می‌کند تا با پی‌ریزی نظریة عدل الهی‌اش، علل احتمالی تجویز شر از جانب خداوند را بیان کند و نشان دهد که خداوند به دلیل عشق به اشخاص برخی از شرور را تجویز کرده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Solving the Problem of Evil based on the Divine Motivation Theory

نویسنده [English]

  • Shima Shahriyari
چکیده [English]

One of the most important criticisms that nowadays threatens the rational belief in the existence of a benevolent, omniscient and omnipotent God, is the problem of evil. Linda Zagzebski is one of the contemporary philosophers who attempts to consider this subject with a new sight. She suggests Divine Motivation Theory to show that God is the ontological foundation for all goods and his motivational states are ontologically and metaphysically the basis for all moral properties and values. By adopting this theory, Zagzebski proves that the logical and the evidential arguments from evil are not justified. She tries to suggest her theodicy to outline God's possible reasons for permitting evil. She shows that god has permitted some evils because of his love for persons.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Zagzebski
  • Divine Motivation theory
  • logical argument from evil
  • evidential argument from evil
  • theodicy
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